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IPC Technical Staff Liaisons—Your ‘Shepherds’ in the IPC Standards Development Process
05/06/2021 | John Perry, IPC
Excerpt: The Printed Circuit Assembler’s Guide to… Smart Data, Chapter 3
05/05/2021 | Sagi Reuven and Zac Elliott, Siemens Digital Industries Software
Process Control in Solder and Reflow
05/05/2021 | Nolan Johnson, I-Connect007
An Inside Look at the IPC Committee Process
05/05/2021 | I-Connect007 Editorial Team
A Tribute to Dieter Bergman
05/04/2021 | David Bergman, IPC
In-line Solder Penetration Testing with 3D X-ray Inspection
Although through-hole technology can be considered the oldest assembly technology in the field of PCB manufacturing, it still has its place even in this modern age of surface-mounted technology. To this end, through-hole components were devised for automatic assembly and for high thermal loads in the furnace, which led to the birth of through-hole reflow.
Test Match: Partnering Specialist Boundary-Scan with ICT
Devices like BGAs with inaccessible pins restrict the coverage possible using ordinary flying probe testing. Augmenting flying probe with boundary-scan can help overcome this problem, as well as deliver additional valuable benefits.
New Embedded Component Standard Finalized
Solberg Technical Consulting's Vern Solberg talks to I-Connect007 about the recently launched standard, the IPC-7092, which focuses on embedded component technology. According to Solberg, this new standard took the earlier standards involved with passive devices, and combined it with standards on newer technologies using active devices, to help form components that can be manufactured and placed on layers within the PCB.
In 3D Inspection, Can 'Length = Height' Mean No Escapes?
During the recent NEPCON China show in Shanghai, I interviewed Kobi Ventura of ALeader Europe, an Israeli-Chinese joint venture with ALeader Vision Technology Ltd., which focuses on SPI and AOI inspection equipment. All of the machines are built in a state-of-the-art factory in Guangdong, China. Utilizing a unique length-equals-height modeling approach to inspection, Kobi states that they offer 100% escape-free technology, and it comes with a guarantee.
High-Density Interconnect and Embedded Board Test
Consumers’ insatiable demand for feature-packed, thin, lightweight, and energy-efficient devices is spurring the need for HDI technology. With new electronic functions constantly being integrated into a SoC encapsulated in a less than 0.5 mm pitch array package, the future looks bright for embedded board test (EBT).
Selecting an Automatic Pick-and-Place Machine, Pt. 3
In this month’s installment in this series of columns aimed at helping buyers analyze and select SMT equipment for printed circuit board assembly, Robert Voigt talks about the features that affect decisions on the selection and purchase of an appropriate automatic pick-and-place machine.
Enclosed Media Printing as an Alternative to Metal Blades
The evolution of PCBs in terms of the miniaturization of assemblies, components, and ever-finer feature print patterns has not slowed, and as a result continues to present ever-increasing challenges to the makers of assembly equipment and solder paste printing technology, narrowing the process window. In this article, Michael L. Martel discusses how enclosed media print head technology has kept up to these challenges.
Solder Paste Printing: Quality Assurance Methodology
In this article, Lars Bruno and Tord Johnson describes a method to ensure quality secured data from both solder paste printers and inspection machines in electronic assembly manufacturing.
NEPCON China 2015 a Resounding Success in Shanghai
The three-day event was a complete success, bringing together nearly 22,000 trade visitors and high-quality buyers, as well as 450 leading brand names from 22 countries and regions worldwide. NEPCON China keeps up with market trends and gathers resources from all stakeholders to present a comprehensive event that covers SMT, new electronics materials, soldering, dispensing, electronics automation, measurement and other innovative technologies and products across the world.
iNEMI Managing Director: New, Disruptive Technology on the Horizon
Dr. Haley Fu, managing director of Asia Pacific for iNEMI, and Publisher Barry Matties spoke recently. Fu gave her overview of the last eight years with iNEMI along with her opinion of what the most significant changes have been, globally and for the Asia market in particular. She predicts that in the future, the PCB will probably adopt optical architectures instead of copper, because using copper for the trace means that the land space and the property will not satisfy the future high-speed data transport rate.
Miniaturization with the Help of Reduced Component-to-Component Spacing
Miniaturization and the integration of a growing number of functions in portable electronic devices require an extremely high packaging density for the active and passive components. This article touches on the assembly technologies that can be incorporated in a more or less standard surface mount assembly line with minimal equipment and material upgrades.
IPC Plating Sub-committee 4-14: Surface Finish Specifications
IPC specifications are reference documents to be called out by designers and OEMs. Designers may take exception with one or more items in the specification to ensure that the product meets the requirements of its intended use. The acronym AAUBUS (as agreed upon between user and supplier) is part of any specification. Specifications are consensus documents. They are agreed upon by a panel of interested industry participants composed of suppliers, manufacturers, assembly houses (CMs) and end-users. The IPC Plating Sub-committee 4-14 is no exception.
Final Test Solution of WLCSP Devices
The common back-end process flow for mobile WLCSP devices is a single- or dual-insertion test at wafer probe. Since there is no final test prior to tape and reel, this equipment typically needs to provide a 5-side device inspection to identify potential device damage from sawing. The inspection efforts are quite demanding, with defect recognition requirements in the range of only 10 to only 20 microns, resulting in frequent time and cost intense human interaction and support requirements.
BGA or CGA: When Is It Right for You?
In this interview with TopLine President and Founder Martin Hart, I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties focuses on column grid array (CGA) and how CGA can solve delamination problems. CGAs, also known as CCGA, are not necessarily new but are making a strong comeback in the high reliability market.
A Look at Saki’s Approach to 2D, 3D and X-ray Technology
At NEPCON 2015, I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties sat down with Nori Koike, COO of Saki Japan, to discuss the latest demands for 3D and their approach to inspection. With more than 20 years of experience, they have built a line-up of tools that covers the inspection spectrum. Koike also stresses the importance of using inspection data as a tool to improve and automate the process.
Advanced Business Intelligence Systems are Not a Luxury
Manufacturing companies are experts in conducting ROI analyses when it comes to production equipment, but most of the analysts and executives who prepare and review ROI analyses do not approach the purchase of software solutions with the same rigor.
IMPACT 2015: An In-Depth Look
IPC understands that presenting a unified voice for the electronics industry is essential for advancing policies that affect the industry’s long-term future and strengthens the U.S. and global economy. That is why 22 IPC member-company executives descended on the nation’s capital for IMPACT 2015: IPC on Capitol Hill, IPC’s annual advocacy event.
Advances in Electronics Assembly Technology - SMART Group Seminar Preview
In a preview webinar to introduce the upcoming SMART Group seminar where the latest advances in assembly technology and reliability will be discussed by industry and subject experts, SMART Group Technical Committee members Charles Cawthorne from MBDA and Ian Fox from Controls and Data Services summarized the papers to be presented.
A Look at the Latest Demands for Flying Probe Testing
Publisher Barry Matties sat down with Seica GM Barbara Duval at the recent NEPCON China show to discuss Seica’s approach to the flying probe markets. Duval also shared some of the latest customer demands on test companies and the test market outlook in Europe and North America, in addition to China, which looks like it will see growth in 2016.
Material Witness: How About that Technical Roadmap!
You may remember the movie "What About Bob?" If you do, you may recall the scene in which Bob (Bill Murray) confronts his psychiatrist (Richard Dreyfuss) and emotes, “I need! I need! I need! Gimme! Gimme! Gimme!” As I thought recently about some of the drivers that IPC and others have incorporated into their technical roadmaps, I feel a bit like that befuddled psychiatrist.
CyberOptics: Honing in on the High-Reliability Market with 3D AOI and SPI Platforms
I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties and CyberOptics’ Sean Langbridge spent time together in China recently, where they discussed, among other things, the company’s newest product launch, a 3D AOI and SPI platform. Langbridge also discusses the latest requirements for inspection.
Reducing SMT Print Cycle Time: The Effects on Assembly Cost and Quality
Models have been available for over 10 years showing how reduced stencil wiping frequency can lower print cycle time. More recently, solder paste formulations have been widely adapted that offer higher transfer efficiencies at small area ratios when subjected to higher sheer forces associated with faster squeegee speed and pressure over the stencil. This article shows how these two cycle time reducers increase throughput when the print step is the rate controller in an SMT process.
Exact Science Implemented at Kester for Increased Reliablity
Kester's Bruno Tolla and Dr. Yanrong Shi discuss with Guest Editor Steve Williams the importance of fully understanding their many solder formulations with respect to solderability and reliability, as related to customer needs and applications. With their fully equipped lab Kester's team can delve deeply into understanding the interactions of the chemistry involved, all of which can affect solderability performance.
Debunking the Myth: Polyimide Tape is Not the Only Answer During Rework
The electronics manufacturing industry has its own myth in polyimide tape being the most effective way to shield neighboring components from heat exposure. Legend has it that this thin, adhesive-backed “protector” will shield components from damage.
IPC Validation Services 2014
Guest Editor Judy Warner talks with IPC's Director of Validation Services, Randy Cherry. Randy has been busy since launching IPC's Validation Services a year ago, with 16 QML audits completed and rapidly growing interest shown at this year's show. Randy also discusses future plans for auditing to IPC intellectual property standards 1071A and 1072, as well as to PCB standard 6012.
Solder Jet Printing: Is It the Right Time?
Publisher Barry Matties gets an update from Nico Coenen, sales director for Mycronic, on their solder jet printing system. Mycronic has been developing and pioneering this technology for 10 years and they believe now is the time for it to gain real traction. One thing is certain; solder jet printing certainly has advanced and could make a big difference in process and quality.
Jetting Strategies for mBGAs: A Question of Give and Take
Among the alternatives for the deposition of solder paste and other fluids on a PCB is jetting, which offers advantages concerning precise volume repeatability, software control and local volume control. The goal of this study is to examine the effect of piezo actuation profile on deposit quality with respect to positioning, shape and satellite levels in order to achieve adequate deposition quality for applications such as 0.4 mm BGA.
EchoStar’s Les Beller Shares the PCB Design-to-Fab Process
Recently, I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties had the opportunity to interview Les Beller of EchoStar Technologies. Beller’s career began in the early 1980s as a circuit board designer, eventually leading him to EchoStar, where he has managed the PWB design group and spent time as a PCB quality engineer. He is now a manufacturing process engineer specializing in DFx. In this interview, Beller focuses on the many challenges circuit board designers face, strategies for bridging the gap between circuit design and fabrication, and the future of circuit designers.
A Conversation (and Day) with Joe Fjelstad, Part 5
Our five-part interview series with Verdant Electronics Founder Joe Fjelstad wraps up with a look back at the point when Fjelstad’s career began focusing on circuit board technology, and he details his patented Occam process, and why this game-changing, disruptive technology has yet to become standard practice in the industry. Also explained: Why Fjelstad has been referred to as an “iconoclastic polemicist,” and how a Native American story he heard long ago has resonated throughout his career and life.
0.3% Humidity, That's Super Dry!
Sitting down with Guest Editor Mark Thompson, Super Dry's Richard Heimsch describes their powerful new dry unit which is capable of 0.3 % relative humidity. Recovery after doors have been opened is lowered super fast in the storage cabinet, able to reach the "safe zone" within three minutes.
A Conversation (and Day) with Joe Fjelstad Part 4
We continue the conversation as it turns to the more technically focused area of disruptive technology. The method Joe has been demonstrating for years now is one which is poised to offer dramatic increases in electronic reliability while decreasing overall cost through the elimination of solder--a cornerstone concept of what has been coined as Occam technology.
Position Accuracy Machines for Selective Soldering of Fine-Pitch Components
Selective soldering is a reliable soldering process for THT connectors and offers a wide process window for designers. But selective soldering is a different process. Compared to wave soldering, there are additional process parameters that are affected by the higher temperatures.
Reliability Assessment of No-clean and Water-soluble Solder Pastes, Part II
Twenty-five years ago, solder paste residues had to be cleaned after reflow due to their corrosive nature: two ways of cleaning were available, either with solvent or by using water, with or without detergent. Now, the assembly world is mainly no-clean: paste formulation is safer in terms of chemical reliability and process costs are reduced without cleaning.
Shax Engineering: The Biggest Little Board Shop in the Bay Area
In a recent visit to Shax Engineering, Barry Matties had the opportunity to interview Isam Shakour, founder and president of Shax Engineering. This little San Jose, California company is a complete turnkey operation, providing PCB layout, fabrication, and assembly services. We discussed the company’s growth since its 1998 founding, and Shakour’s plans for Shax going into the future.
Solving Inspection Problems with True 3D in AOI, AXI and SPI Systems
SAKI America's family of true-3D inspection systems cover the whole spectrum of SPI, AOI and AXI tasks. Quintin Armstrong explains how the unique resolution capability of their AXI achieves 100% detection of head-in-pillow defects.
A Conversation (and Day) with Joe Fjelstad Part 3
In Part 3 of this interview series, Fjelstad divulges his interesting entry into the electronics manufacturing industry, including a brief diversion as a restaurateur. In this portion of the interview, the pair was touring the Evergreen Aviation and Space Museum (home of the Spruce Goose) where Fjelstad spoke frankly about his experience in Vietnam and how it has shaped his view about war, which he shares. Finally, the importance of education was discussed, as well as India, and why the rest of the manufacturing world should be paying attention to them.
Reflow Profiling on the Electrical Reliability of No-Clean Solder Paste Flux Residues
Optimization of a reflow profile often focuses on mitigating defects such as voiding, tombstoning, graping, and slumping/bridging. But little thought is given to the reflow profile’s effect on the electrical reliability of the no-clean flux residue. Because of the wide variation in size and thermal density of SMT components and PCBs, achieving a reflow profile that equally heats the entire assembly can be challenging and often impossible.
A Conversation (and Day) with Joe Fjelstad, Part 2
In Part 2 of this multi-part interview series, Verdant Electronics Founder and CEO Joe Fjelstad, and I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties discuss the future of what’s to come for the electronics industry, which, according to Fjelstad, has a lot to do with where we’ve just been in our quest for lead-free manufacturing. He also offers his view on the natural order of the evolution of personal political persuasions.
Enhancements in Consolidating Data Prep
Valor's principle of consolidating data once then using it in multiple areas downstream, for example stencil design, pick and place programming and test machine programming, has now been extended to include X-ray inspection programming. Mark Laing explains how.
A Conversation (and Day) with Joe Fjelstad, Part 1
I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties and industry veteran Joe Fjelstad, CEO and founder of Verdant Electronics, met recently to spend a day together enjoying the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum (home of the Spruce Goose), located in the Oregon community of McMinnville. Their conversation ebbed and flowed between a wide variety of topics, from the electronics industry, to political shenanigans and the “war against failure.” In Part 1 of this multi-part series, Fjelstad introduces his “war against failure” idea, and what went terribly wrong in the advent of lead-free manufacturing.
Solder Paste Stencil Design for Optimal QFN Yield and Reliability
Over the past 15 years, the implementation of the QFN/BTC package has garnered a great amount of attention due to the assembly and inspection process challenges associated with the package. The difference in solder application parameters between the center pad and the perimeter pads complicates stencil design, and must be given special attention to balance the dissimilar requirements.
SJIT, Solder Joint Integrity Test, To Find Latent Defects in Printed Wiring Board Assembly
Capacitance method and IEEE 1149.1 or boundary scan method are often used to find opens between component leads and pads on a printed wiring board. These methods, however, can find complete opens or complete shorts only; and latent defects that can be complete defect after several years have not been found by the conversational method. This article talks about a method to find such latent defects by using 4-wire small resistance measurement technique.
Zentech: Expanding EMS Solutions and Supporting Innovation
Zentech CEO and President Matt Turpin sat down with I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties recently for a wide-ranging discussion of the state of both domestic and global manufacturing, and Zentech’s recent acquisition that will significantly expand the company’s capabilities. They also focused on supply chain issues, automation, regulations, and the importance of STEM education in the U.S.
Open Failure Analysis Lab Assessment Service Available
Bhanu Sood describes the services offered by the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, and explains how physics-of-failure techniques are applied as a means of gaining a scientific understanding of reliability.
Software and Hardware Solutions
Jim Dickerson discusses software that goes beyond the SMT line to manage the whole process flow of the factory. Shawn Robinson describes award-winning placement systems with multi-recognition camera technology.
Universal Instruments Talks Challenges in China's Electronics Manufacturing Industry
Glenn Farris, Vice President of Marketing at Universal Instruments Corp., discusses with I-Connect007 Guest Editor Jessie Jiang at RealTimeWith...NEPCON China 2015 the key challenges facing China's electronics manufacturing industry.
NEPCON China Showcases Latest Manufacturing Tech in Asia
Considered Asia's biggest, most influential SMT and electronics manufacturing event, NEPCON China 2015 attracted over 450 leading brands from 22 countries, who are showcasing this week the latest electronics manufacturing technologies and products across an exhibition area of 25,000 sqm. I-Connect007 is on hand again this year covering this event with exclusive interviews and photos from the show floor.
An Optical Update with TTM
Barry Matties recently met with Marika Immonen, manager of R&D optical interconnects at TTM Technologies. They last spoke one year ago. This time, they discussed the optical project that she’s been leading, as well as the future of optical technology in the PCB industry.
How to Select an Automatic Pick-and-Place Machine
This is the third in a series of articles designed to help buyers analyze and select SMT equipment for PCB assembly, and examines automatic pick-and-place machines, the most complex component in a circuit assembly operation. This article will focus on features and capabilities and include some cautions regarding reliability of low-cost machines.
Understanding DFM and its Role in PCB Layout
DFM is short for “design for manufacturability.” It is the process of arranging a PCB layout topology to mitigate problems that could be encountered during the PCB fabrication and assembly processes required to manufacture an electronic system. Addressing fabrication issues is what’s known as design for fabrication (DFF), and addressing assembly issues during design is known as design for assembly (DFA).
Are the Robots Taking Over?
Some have a fear that robots are taking over, but the founders of Universal Robots have a different view. They have focused on producing a versatile robotic arm that frees humans from doing the repetitive tasks. Their journey has not been an easy one. From a startup with just a couple of employees their future was questionable at best, but they never gave up.
Zentech’s John Vaughan on the Mil/Aero Sector: “It’s Headed Up”
I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties and Zentech’s John Vaughan had a chance to discuss industry concerns within the mil/aero segment at IPC APEX EXPO 2015. The two also shared thoughts on the space industry, and Vaughan detailed Zentech’s involvement with National Manufacturing Day, a nationwide effort focused on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) that simultaneously brought high school students together with 1,600 manufacturing companies from around the U.S.
Benefits of Soldering with Vacuum Profiles
Requirements for void-free solder joints are continuously increasing in the field of electronics manufacturing, bringing new challenges that are evolving on a daily basis due to the relentless introduction of new variants of so-called bottom-terminated components (BTCs). Connector geometries alone are not decisive—numerous pitfalls are of greater significance.
High Reliability Thanks to Adhesives
Protecting electronic components from thermal, mechanical and chemical stress is becoming increasingly important in many industries. DELO Industrial Adhesives’ product specialist Kevin Balben explains the correct uses of today’s encapsulants and compounds and clarifies the myths that surround them.
Time to Ditch Heavy Metal for Soft Rock?
Yash Sutariya and Thomas S. Tarter shine a light on the often overlooked topic when it comes to PCBs for LEDs: reliability. They wrote that composite materials can provide both a thermal management solution and a dimensional stability solution that has not yet been presented through conventional materials.
Bernie Kessler: Pioneering Spirit Then and Now
I-Connect007’s Patty Goldman sat down with longtime friend and IPC Hall of Famer Bernie Kessler at IPC APEX EXPO 2015 in San Diego. Among other things, the two discussed the early days of IPC, and the beginnings of APEX EXPO.
Developments with Metallic Thermal Interface Materials
Tim Jensen and Dave Saums write about the critical role of the thermal interface material in improving the efficiency of heat transfer between a semiconductor device and the surface to which it is attached.
Hunter Technology’s Two Newest CID Recipients Discuss Certification
I-Connect007 Guest Editor Kelly Dack spent time at Hunter Technology’s Silicon Valley plant, where he had the opportunity to sit down with two recent CID certification recipients, Jeff Davidson and Zev Gross, who recently completed Dack’s CID training program. The two also discuss the benefits of achieving certification and their plans to take the advanced course.
The Importance of Solder Process Expertise
Alpha's Marketing Manager for the Americas Robert Wallace talks with Guest Editor Kelly Dack about the company's new products such as solder preforms shaped like passive components and low temperature solder alloy pastes, as well as other innovations that the company is doing.
How to Streamline PCB Thermal Design
Thermal issues with a PCB design are mostly determined during the component selection and layout phases. After this point, only remedial actions are possible if components are found to run too hot. John Parry discusses how addressing thermal issues early in PCB design, starting at the system or enclosure level, can help streamline the entire process.
Doing Business in India and China
Electrolube Managing Director Ron Jakeman spoke to I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties at CPCA 2015 in Shanghai. The company, more than 70 years old, has evolved over the decades, from producing contact lubricants, to manufacturing globally, with subsidiaries worldwide, including Beijing, China. In this interview, manufacturing, state of the global markets, and even Indian cuisine are discussed.
Multek CTO Excited About the Challenges of the Fast-Moving Wearables Market
I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties and recently-appointed Multek CTO Dr. Joan Vrtis sat down at IPC APEX EXPO to discuss the rapidly evolving wearables market, especially for medical, and the myriad questions that must be addressed. Other topics include Multek’s contribution to the wearables industry and what it sees as the main challenges to putting their circuits into various applications.
Product Line Philosophy: Start Small...End Big
Ralph Savage, CEO of EasyBraid, talks to Kelly Dack about his company started their business, as well as some of the activites and technologies they are doing now, such as desoldering, stencil cleaning and a soldering technology based on the Curie principle. He also discussed the company's strategy in bringing world-class technology into the United States.
Upping the U.S. Service Level of Chinese Manufacturing
Eddie Tang of Glory Faith and Yash Sutariya, president of Alpha Circuit discuss the unique business relationship between their companies. Alpha provides consulting and technical service in North America for GF, including rework and emergency manufacturing capability in its North American plants.
How to Select a Pick-and-Place Machine, Part I
In this article, Robert Voigt writes about manual and semiautomatic pick and place machines, for users interested in going from a couple boards a day to much higher production volumes.
Electrolube Expands Their Coverage
Phil Kinner talks coatings and encapsulants with Kelly Dack and explains how thin coatings give environmental protection whereas thick opaque encapsulants provide IP protection and high reliability.
Raising a Unified Voice for an Advanced Manufacturing Economy
The electronics manufacturing industry is an important sector in the global economy, and John Hasselmann, VP of Government Relations at IPC, is an advocate for policies that will help our industry as well as the prosperity and welfare of billions of people.
Hunter Technology on Design Operations and Business Strategies
Immediately following IPC APEX EXPO 2015, Guest Editor Kelly Dack paid a visit to Hunter Technology’s facility in Milpitas, California, where he interviewed Ian Grover, vice president of design engineering, and Chris Alessio, vice president of sales and programs. Discussed are Hunter’s design operations as well as the company’s overall business strategy.
Direct Marketing Strategy Paying Off
Approaching 50 years in the business of supplying assembly equipment to the small-to-medium user, with an emphasis on understanding the needs of the customer and providing the best in value and service, Manncorp's Henry Mann and Ed Stone believe in direct marketing with readily accessible information.
Trending at Freedom CAD: New Crop of Next‐Gen Designers
Scott McCurdy, director of sales and marketing at Freedom CAD Services, expresses his vision for what North America is bringing to the table in the world of circuit design. I‐Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties and McCurdy also discuss China, trends in product design, tools, and more.
Neutral Cleaning and Latest Developments in Closed-Loop Control
Cleaning processes that are pH-neutral have become a trend-setter in semiconductor and power-electronics applications, and concentration management is simplified by full closed-loop control. Harald Wack and Todd Scheerer explain the technical and environmental benefits.
Japan’s Thermosetting Plastics Association Represents at IPC APEX EXPO 2015
At the International Reception, held opening night of IPC APEX EXPO 2015, I-Connect Technical Editor Pete Starkey made the rounds and found some visitors from Japan, namely, Kazutaka Masaoka, from Thermosetting Plastics Association (JTPIA). In this brief interview conducted amongst the reception attendees, Masaoka-san and Starkey discuss Japanese vs. North American circuit board quality and business trends.
Role of Plasma in Reliability of Conformal Coating
Besides its established applications in PCB fabrication, plasma is increasingly used in preparing assenblies for conformal coating, rendering surfaces hydrophilic and so promoting wettability and coating adhesion for increased reliability.
Reliability and Harmonization of Global Standards at Forefront of EIPC Efforts
At IPC APEX EXPO 2015, I-Connect007 Technical Editor Pete Starkey caught up with EIPC's Michael Weinhold and Alun Morgan, who were happy to discuss both recent and ongoing focuses for EIPC, namely, reliability. Also touched on was the importance of the alignment of global standardization processes, especially for Asia.
Tin Whisker Risk Assessment of a Tin Surface Finished Connector
Rockwell Collins initially investigated and qualified Samtec’s SEARAY solder charge connector technology with a focus on solder joint integrity. However, the connector in question was found to have a potential risk of tin whiskers due to a small region of the connector that was not protected by either solder poisoning or the connector’s mechanical configuration.
High-end Assembly Requirements for Precision Dispensing
Dispensing is the cost-effective solution for repeatably placing precise amounts of underfills, encapsulants and sealants in otherwise inaccessible areas as packaging complexity inceases, particularly in the third dimension. Brian Chung of Nordson Asymtek sees mobile and wearable electronics as the drivers of the leading edge of precision dispensing technology.
The Unpredictability of Tin Whiskers Endures
Into decade number two of the European Union’s RoHS and REACH restrictions for the use of lead in electronic components, the risk of tin whiskers in critical circuitry continues. This article will explore a tin whisker mitigation process for surface mount electronic components applicable to both passive and active components.
Ready to Hire! Blackfox Provides IPC Class 3 Training to Veterans
I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties caught up with Al Dill, president and CEO of Blackfox Training Institute, for an in-depth discussion on Blackfox's expansion plans for North America (Tempe, Arizona and Guadalajara, Mexico) and Malaysia (Penang). Dill also describes the highly successful veteran’s training program, which is being spearheaded at the Blackfox headquarters in Longmont, Colorado.
Bob Neves Receives Award, Talks Bergman Tribute
I-Connect007 Publisher Barry Matties sat down with Bob Neves, one of the first recipients of the Dieter Bergman Fellowship award, to talk about the tribute held for Dieter on Wednesday night of IPC APEX EXPO 2015, and some of the reasons behind the newly created award.
Tin Whisker Growth on the Surface of Tin-Rich Lead-Free Alloys
This article presents the results of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) studies showing the relationship between tin whisker formation and copper and oxygen surface content in whisker neighborhood.
Tin Whiskers: Why Testing Temperature Can Change the Outcome
Tin whisker phenomena have been observed and its potential mishaps have been recognized for more than six decades in electronic, electrical and industrial applications. In this article, Dr. Jennie Hwang discusses why temperature is one of the key variables that drive the tin whisker phenomenon, mechanism and how the underlying science operates.
Advanced Printing for Microelectronic Packaging
The concept of dispensing a wide range of materials in three dimensions presents a potential change in electronic packaging. This article will cover the concept of combining dispensing technologies on a single platform to build integrated and monolithic electronic structural circuits.
Risk and Mitigation for Tin Whiskers and Tin Pest
In this article, Dr. Ronald C. Lasky provides a semi-quantitative analysis of the effect of these risk and mitigation strategies on tin pest and tin whisker risk.
EPTAC Expansion Includes CID Curriculum
Leo Lambert, vice president and technical director of EPTAC, discusses EPTAC's latest expansion, which includes IPC's certified interconnect designer (CID) curriculum.
Minimizing the Risk of Tin Whisker Formation in Lead-Free Assemblies
Although tin whiskers are very small crystalline fibers, they have reportedly caused multiple NASA satellites to become inoperable, automotive accelerator pedals to become unusable and a nuclear reactor to malfunction. The risk, however, can be minimized by specifying material sets that are less likely to produce tin whiskers.
Cadence’s Brad Griffin Digs Deep Into DDR
During DesignCon 2015, our roving reporter, Kelly Dack, stopped by to visit with Brad Griffen in the Cadence booth. What follows is their very interesting conversation that revolves around the evolution of DDR.
Proposed EU Legislation Receives Industry Support
Given the wide variety of opinions and proposed amendments on the conflict minerals legislation, it is hard to predict what will be included in the final legislation or when it will be passed into law. IPC will continue to stay involved, advocate for our members and keep you informed.
Enhancing Thermal Performance in Embedded Computing for Ruggedized Military and Avionics Applications
Embedded computing systems used in many military and avionics applications are trending toward higher heat fluxes, and as a result performance is being hindered by thermal limitations. This article outlines a series of passive thermal improvements that are easily integrated into legacy systems and can provide a 3-4x increase in dissipated power.
2015 EIPC Winter Conference, Munich: Day 1 Review
Ninety delegates, eleven countries represented and a thought-provoking two-day programme on themes of reliability in PCB fabrication and assembly, copper cleaning and advanced material solutions, advanced imaging and soldermask, and how to make PCBs smart and ready for Industry 4.0. Add the further attractions of a keynote by Walt Custer and the chance to visit a military aircraft assembly plant: the formula for another highly successful EIPC Conference, this time close to Munich Airport.
Essemtec Features Paraquda at Automaticon
At the upcoming AUTOMATICON 2015 exhibition, taking place March 17 - 20 in Warsaw, Essemtec, the Swiss manufacturer of production systems for electronic assembly and packaging, will highlight its award-winning Paraquda in booth B28, hall 1.
California Congressman Mike Honda Discusses American Manufacturing
Barry Matties, Publisher of I-Connect007, sat down with Congressman Honda, who represents District 17 in the Silicon Valley, and talked with him about American manufacturing, infrastructure, education and some of the current thinking in America. According to Honda, "The policies we pass and the things we do in D.C. that negatively impact our economy...a lot of those guys who don’t support some of the positive things we want to see happen don’t really understand that it impacts their districts, their social services, health and business."
JOT Automates Final Testing of Smart Wearables
JOT Automation automates the final testing of smart wearables for an enriched end-user experience and shortens the time-to-market in the highly competitive market. JOT G3, known as an all-in-one final tester for smartphones, also enables fully automatic tests on wearables like smartwatches in a repeatable and reliable environment.
Wearable Tech Back to a Healthy Development Pace
Wearable tech was a major sensation in 2014. The wearable tech industry generated extensive interest among media, investors, start-ups, wearable tech enthusiasts, technology leaders and trade fairs. Many events were held around wearable products and industry last year. The trend for early 2015 has seen the industry fall back into a healthy developmental pace. Investors are keen to see a return on their capital injections and former start-ups are now reaching maturity.
Risk and Mitigation for Tin Whiskers and Tin Pest
There is considerable and justifiable concern over the risks of tin whiskers. However, the same concern is not apparent regarding the dangers of tin pest. This paper will present an overview of both of these reliability concerns by reviewing what is known about the mechanisms and the occurrence of both phenomena.
Production of PCBs Drives SMT Equipment Market
The global market for Surface Mount Technology Equipment is projected to reach US$4.5 billion by 2020, driven by the strong demand for electronic products and the ensuing increase in production of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs).
ZESTRON's Umut Tosun to Present at IPC APEX
In his presentation, ZESTRON's Umut Tosun will review the performance of pH neutral cleaning agents as compared to alkaline cleaning agents and DI-water for cleaning No Clean, RMA and OA flux residues.
Data I/O to Showcase PSV7000 at APEX
“The PSV7000 is our fastest ramping automated system and has become the preferred programming solution for leading automotive electronics manufacturers worldwide, with 8 of the top 9 automotive electronics companies purchasing at least one PSV7000 since its introduction.” states Anthony Ambrose, President and CEO of Data I/O Corporation.
RPS to Exhibit Multiple Systems at IPC APEX
RPS Automation LLC has made plans to display four systems from their Selective Soldering line at the upcoming IPC APEX EXPO in San Diego, February 24-26.
Indium's Jensen to Present Webtorials for PCB Assembly
Indium Corporation’s Tim Jensen, senior product manager for engineered solders, will share his expertise during two Surface Mount Technology Association (SMTA) Webtorials on March 18 and 25 from 1-2:30 p.m. EST.
Nordson EFD Demos Fluid Dispensing Systems at MD&M
Nordson EFD, a Nordson company, the world's leading precision fluid dispensing systems manufacturer, will demonstrate its new series of automated fluid dispensing systems at MD&M West in Anaheim, California on February 10-12, 2015 in booth #3335. Nordson EFD's new systems combine precise dispensing with fast and easy programming and are easily integrated into any manufacturing operation. These closed-loop systems ensure that the dispensing process stays in control. Customers will benefit fro…
Opportunities for 3D Printed Structural Electronics
Today's 3D printers have many limitations, but the boundaries are being pushed and exciting developments are continuously being made. One of the most promising recent developments in the world of 3D printing is multimaterial printing, which holds the key to the emergence of 3D printed electronics.
ZESTRON to Hold 5-part Cleaning Webinar Series
ZESTRON has announced the first installment in the 2015 5-Part Cleaning Webinar Series titled "Defluxing in a No-clean and OA world".
The Power of Counterfeit Component Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation Training
The counterfeit component landscape is changing, and there is a need to continuously improve and stay on top of current detection training techniques for the prevention and mitigation of counterfeit electronic components.
2015: Changes in Assembly and Acceptance Criteria Specs and Training Programs
The recent adoption of the newest versions of the JSTD-001 and the companion document IPC A 610 late in the summer of 2014 means that there are several changes ahead for those inspecting boards during assembly, accepting boards at incoming inspection, building boards and training associates on applying the revised standards.
The Rise of Structural Electronics
Structural electronics is one of the most important technological developments of this century. It forms a key part of the dream, first formulated 30 years ago, of computing disappearing into the fabric of society. It also addresses, in a particularly elegant manner, the dream of Edison in 1880 that electricity should be made where it is needed.
CES 2015: Preview and Predictions
Looking back over the last five years of CES and analyzing predictions and items featured by the large exhibitors, you'd likely assume the 2015 show would feature more advanced 3D TVs, as they were predicted to take over the market...wrong!
Component Selection for Easier Design and Manufacture of Electronics
In the world of high tech, simplicity is arguably one of the foundational objectives of most of the technologies that surround us today. Certainly this is true in terms of how product designers are trying to create interfaces that allow even the most non-technical users to get what they need from electronic products with a minimum of hassle.
SMTA: Call for Papers for 2015 Events
SMTA announces abstracts are now being accepted for several events taking place in 2015. All submissions must be non-commercial in nature and focus on technology research rather than a company product.
Rework Challenges for Smartphones and Tablets
The implementation of surface-mount devices is crucial for smartphone manufacturers, offering increased component density and improved performance. Mobile products generally use an epoxy underfill to adhere components to the PCB to meet the mechanical strength requirements of a drop test. Reworking glued components is the most difficult application in the electronics industry, and must be addressed as a process.
High-reliability, Pb-free, Halogen-free Solder
This paper from Ian Wilding and Gavin Jackson addresses the performance of a specifically designed lead-free solder alloy for increased reliability in high-temperature thermal cycling. It also documents the challenges and breakthroughs in developing halogen-free or zero-halogen solder fluxes compatible with the lead-free alloy specifically designed for higher reliability.
Assembly and the Quest for Solder Alloy-Free Electronics (SAFE)
"As first brush, the title's suggestion that solder can be eliminated from the assembly process may appear absurd. Everyone related in any way to this industry knows solder is the universally accepted way of connecting components to printed circuits in electronic assemblies. Thus, the fact that many knowledgeable people in the industry might scoff at the notion solder can be eliminated comes both without surprise and a certain amount of resignation," writes Joe Fjelstad.
Sanmina: Automation in Production Lines
With so much discussion about the increasing amount of automation in the world of electronics assembly Editor Richard Ayes asked Gelston Howell, senior VP at Sanmina, to provide perspective on the state of manufacturing automation. Howell discusses the current state of automated electronics assembly systems, the inherent risks and challenges, and the future of robotics in manufacturing.
The Essential Pioneer's Survival Guide: Reshoring Made Simple
Companies are realizing the pros of offshoring are no longer what once they were and that the cons are becoming more significant. Is reshoring really commercially viable? This reshoring opportunity, coordinated with the seemingly unstoppable current market trends, can either be taken advantage of now, or if delayed, could represent the final loss of onshore manufacturing opportunity.
Assembly with Solder - An Unblinking Look at
While soldering holds many benefits in terms of offering a means of mass assembly of components to PCBs and is fundamentally simple, its application is much more complex and fraught with opportunity for defects to be generated, but it is also the demon we have elected to live with, for as the old saying suggests: "Better is the devil we know."
BEST, Inc.: Branching Out to Bare Board Rework
Bob Wetterman, president of BEST, Inc., joins Guest Editor Mark Thompson to discuss the company's move into reworking unpopulated boards, building products that facilitate faster rework and repair, and IPC certification and training.
Forensics Uncovers Elusive Defects & Saves PCB Designs
Products and their supporting PCBs and packages have shrunk so much that it is considerably challenging to detect extremely small problems. But a forensic approach can help you uncover defects that traditional methods may miss says NexLogic's Zulki Khan.
Sustainability: What and Why?
Joe Fjelstad writes, "The resources of our planet are limited and thus are diminishing as we continue to unleash and ramp-up a seemingly never-ending flow of products to both serve and amuse us with output of the global electronics industry likely to be nearing the top of the list of 'offenders.' In that regard, we are becoming victims of our own success, to one degree or another."
Thru-hole Lead-free Soldering and Rework Concerns
Despite the industry's switch to SMT from thru-hole for almost three decades now, thru-hole has not disappeared yet, and don't expect it to any time soon. The most common way to solder thru-hole components en masse is by wave soldering. For tin/lead, the wave pot temperature for soldering thru-hole components is generally maintained at 260°C.
Supplier Selection Key to Assembly Reliability
As with any electronic assembly, or electronic device for that matter, the quality of the raw printed circuit board is the most critical link in the product reliability chain. According to Steve Williams, the key to managing this risk is the supplier selection and qualification process.
Advanced Through-Hole Rework of Thermally Challenging Components/Assemblies: An Evolutionary Process, Part 2
The conversion of high-end server and network applications to lead-free is being hastened by government regulations and the limited availability of tin-lead components. The successful transition of low-end and mid-range server applications to lead-free has come largely through wave solder process optimization and the use of alternate lead-free alloys for mini-pot rework.
Plasma Polymerization: A Versatile and Attractive Process for Conformal Coating
This paper discusses the plasma coating process and the equipment used. The application of this type of coating to electronic assemblies and high-frequency RF applications, and the results of tests to demonstrate the protection offered by these coatings, is also addressed.
Moisture Sensitivity Concerns in PCBs for Lead-free Assemblies
During the early stages of lead-free implementation, we were concerned with lead-free alloy selection and reliability issues. Now a new issue has cropped up — PCB delamination and moisture sensitivity and steps necessary to control them.
From the Show: A Hands-on APEX Session
On the first day of APEX, IPC and three instructors from BEST decided to bring a more pragmatic approach to a PCB repair topic taught in the technical program. Along with 24 participants, the instructors from BEST led a hands-on reballing session. After a lively, highly participative 60-min. question and answer session on the fundamentals of reballing, the reballing process, and its various attributes, participants eagerly began the hands-on session.
A New Method for Reworking SMT Components
A recently developed new stenciling process overcomes metal stencils and hand soldering deficiencies, resulting in better first pass yields and faster rework times--all while simplifying the rework process.
More productronica Exhibits
productronica 2009 will take place November 10–13 in Munich, Germany. Following are more new and flagship products to see at the electronics manufacturing tradeshow, not featured in our Productronica Show Preview: Materials. Productronica Show Preview: Equipment productronica 2009: Product Showcase.
STEP 10 Rework and Repair: The Complete BGA Rework Process
Robert Avila and Wade Gay, Finetech, describe the steps to BGA rework, aided by video clips of rework in action. There are at least five steps in successfully completing the cycle for BGA rework. These steps, which include component removal, site cleaning, reballing, and soldering, do not change, independent of whether or not the BGA is on a PCB that is large, small, thin, or thick, etc.
Step-by-Step - Step 10: Rework & Repair
Modern PCBs, with higher component density and shrinking component and trace/space dimensions, can be successfully modified, reworked, and repaired even while being processed in today’s lead-free and mixed-alloy rework-and-repair environments.
APEX NEWS 2007
On the show floor at IPC Printed Circuits Expo/APEX/Designers Summit, the more than 400 exhibitors provided product information, process knowledge, and interactive tools to a constant flow of attendees.
SMT Welcomes Advisory Board Members
SMT Magazine welcomes Laura J. Turbini, Ph.D., and Harald Wack, Ph.D., to its Editorial Advisory Board. The Board offers insight on the industry, future trends, and market technology; members write columns such as "Speaking of Process Optimization," "Speaking of Cleaning," and more. Turbini and Wack will join 10 other industry experts that analyze the SMT industry from every possible angle.
Surface Mount Battery Retainer
The 11.6 coin-cell retainer is a top-loaded, low-profile retainer designed for automated SMT placement. Keystone Electronics Corporation states that the lightweight surface mount battery retainer suits high-density PCB packaging.
Design for Manufacture
As more companies embrace design for manufacture (DFM) as a method to increase both profits and throughput, a concept known as design for excellence (DFX) has come to the forefront. When properly implemented, DFX will ensure that a product can be manufactured and tested.
Tombstoning Reduction Via Phased-reflow Soldering
A drop-in replacement for standard lead alloys, whereby a small amount of Sn62 wets both sides of the termination before the Sn63 melting point is reached. The lower melting point on sn62 tack solders parts to the board and virtually eliminates this common defect.
New Electronics Industry Award Named After Company Founder
Vishay Intertechnology, Inc. announces that Dr. Felix Zandman, founder, chairman, CTO and business development officer, has had a new award named after him by the Electronic Components, Assemblies & Materials Association (ECA). The Dr. Felix Zandman Award was officially presented on March 20 at the CARTS (Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium) event in Palm Springs, Calif., in conjunction with the 25th anniversary of CARTS USA.
New Acoustic Capabilities Aid Flip Chips
In the past, flip chips have achieved higher I/O counts repeatedly to take advantage of their compact design.
Solder Paste vs. Flux-only Attachment for BGA Rework
Proper rework procedures, which should mimic the original manufacturing process to ensure the reliability of the reworked device, have taken a backseat to expediency.
Maximizing Lead-free Wetting
This article examines the findings of several studies using quantitative wetting gauges to measure solder-paste wetting to PCB surfaces.
Mixed Technologies Converge - Changing the Assembly Scene
Commercial markets for pervasive high-tech products dominate the electronics scene and are forcing assemblers to respond to the miniaturization and convergence of diverse technologies.
Three-Five Systems Names New Regulatory Affairs Director
Three-Five Systems (TFS) announces that it has named Leslie Honda to the newly created post of regulatory affairs director.
Looking Forward to Day 2
This is the fifth in a series of articles about APEX, held January 22-24, 2002 in San Diego. It provides a guide to the activities of the second day of the show.
Looking Forward to Day 1
This is the third in a series of articles about APEX, held January 22-24, 2002 in San Diego. It provides a guide to activities taking place during the first day of the show.
Process Control for Solder Paste Deposition
The authors review solder paste inspection, the sensor technologies used to acquire 2-D/3-D inspection and measurement data, methods of using measurement data to identify problems and solutions, and guidance on developing an AOI strategy.
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